Restoration colonies: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/124/127330/images/0050.gif
1660, a number of new colonies were formed:
1. Six of the 13 colonies were called Restoration colonies:
In the north, NY, NJ, DEL, PENN, were founded. These colonies are also called the Middle Colonies, because they are located on the Mid-Atlantic seaboard.
In the south, the colonies of NC, & SC were also founded as Restoration colonies.
2. All of these colonies were proprietorships, meaning that 1 man or group of men owned all the land, parceled it out to tenants and demanded quitrents, and controlled the government.
3. These lands were given to these proprietors because King Charles II owed them for their support of his cause in the English Civil Wars
(Background: There was a civil war in England between the Crown and the Puritans. King Charles I was executed in 1649 and the Puritans ruled until 1660, when Charles II retook the English throne in 1660.)
To reward them for their service in the English Civil Wars, the king gave land to his supporters to be governed however they pleased, generally for the purpose of making money.
I. The Middle Colonies:
Background: The Netherlands and Sweden challenged Spain's dominance of the New World by founding two of the Middle Colonies, which later became English colonies
A. In the late 16th and early 17th Cs, the Dutch had emerged as a leading economic power in Europe
B. In 1626, Peter Minuit founded New Netherland on Manhattan Island and established the port city of New Amsterdam
He planned to establish the Dutch fur trading empire along the Hudson River
C. Over time, the Dutch established forts and settlements to support this trade. Unlike the other European powers, they made no efforts to convert the Indians.
They were interested in profits, not souls
D. Dutch settlements in America failed to attract enough settlers to compete w/ the rival English who surrounded them
E. New Netherland passed into English hands when it was conquered by James, the Duke of York, in 1667
1. York then renamed it after himself—the colony became New York and New Amsterdam became New York City http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/maps/new-york-map-625.jpg
New York was also a proprietorship, meaning the Duke ruled it exclusively
York then est. New Jersey as a separate colony
. It went through a series of proprietors until it was made a royal colony in 1702
2. Along the Hudson Valley in New York, however, the proprietors established huge estates (known as landed estates) and attempted to live like feudal lords
They hoped to attract tenant farmers who would work the land and pay quitrents to the proprietors, who would live lthe ives of leisured gentlemen
As land became scarce in the more established colonies in the early 18th, some settlers moved to this area and set themselves up as tenants on these estates.
but hard times would lead these tenants to revolt in the mid-18th Century
; more on that later
G. William Penn's proprietary colony in Pennsylvania was founded in 1680 as a refuge for Quakers
1. Quakers were a religious sect in England who were persecuted for their faith, which took Puritanism to its’ logical end and abolished all religious rituals and hierarchies
; this proved problematic in a hierarchical world
a. They held simple services where anyone could speak as commanded by the Inner Light; even women were allowed to speak
b. They generally eschewed social hierarchies, refusing to doff their hats or show “respect” to their “betters”
c. They also refused military service—they were pacifists—and would not take oaths, and they refused to pay tithes to any church
d. These things really set them apart as “odd” and Quakers' pacifist, egalitarian ways were a major challenge to the social order
of the 17th and 18th centuries
2. Penn's colony was also unique in that it had pacifistic policy toward Indians
a. Penn only settled on lands that he had negotiated in treaty and paid for
b. This meant that relations between the colonists and Indians in Pennsylvania were peaceful and cooperative--funny how treating people with respect leads to better relations with them!
c. But as more and more people pushed onto the frontier in the later 18th century, these settlers did not bother to go through the proper government channels to get land legally; this led to conflict
3. Moreover, Penn's Frame of Government was a radical document for its time—it made Pennsylvania the most open and democratic Restoration Colony
It guaranteed political liberty and religious freedom to all and allowed Christians of all denominations to vote and hold office
H. Because of their unique political and religious structures, NY, NJ, & PN were not settled by English Puritans but were, instead, multicultural
1. German Lutherans, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, Quakers, and Dutch Reformed Prods all came to this region of the British colonies for religious freedom
2. Also, farmers were attracted to the mid-Atlantic region over the early 18th C because it had ample fertile land and a long growing season
These colonists produced wheat and cattle for trans-Atlantic trade
3. These colonies were mostly middle class--don't see extremes of rich and poor that you see in the South
There was, however, an important trans--Atlantic trade dominated by Quakers in Philly—who became very rich
; And no, this was not part of official Quaker doctrine.
4. The Middle Colonies were also more "urban" in that they had the two largest cities in the colonies: (larger than Boston in 1750 @ 15,000)
New York @ 18,000 by 1750
Philadelphia @ 30,000 by 1776
a. A booming ship-building economy for trade meant that an artisan community grew up in the seaport cities, to make riggings for ships, (ropes, sails, metal fittings) and to make barrels for shipping goods.
b. The shipping industries also spawned taverns, livery stables, blacksmith shops, a housing industry, & other services needed by a city
This was skilled work and paid well (when you could get it) and many of these artisans were prosperous; today we would call them upper middle class
Thus, an artisan class with a class consciousness grew up in these cities
They had great pride in their skilled craftsman ship and the fact that they owned the tools they needed to make a living (these tools are called the means of production).
Over time, there would be struggles between the merchant elites who ran the shipping and the artisans who worked in the ship-building industries for control of political and economic life
of the cities
These struggles play a role in the Revolution
The Southern proprietorships: the Carolinas, founded in 1670, and Georgia,
founded in 1733,
A. The proprietors of the Carolina coast drew up the Fundamental Constitutions in the Carolinas.
These attempted to establish feudal manors with quitrents (a fancy word for rents charged to farmers) and established the Church of England (Anglican Church) as the official church of thecolonies.
In both North and South Carolina, however, farmers refused to work on the large manors or pay quitrents
B. Thus, the colonies had some agriculture but were mainly founded on a trans-Atlantic trade in “slaves and skins”
Deerskins provided leather for English markets
; Indian allies hunted the deer for export--the Cherokees were a major supplier.
Indian slaves, taken by the more powerful tribes raiding the weaker ones, were shipped to the West Indies to work the sugar plantations; again, the Cherokees were the major supplier of slaves
Rice and indigo grown by plantation-slave agriculture expanded export markets for the southern proprietorships in the first decades of the 18th C
This created another prosperous commodity for the trans-Atlantic trade.
But harsh working conditions in these industries required importing more slaves b/c workers’ mortality so high. Increasingly, these slaves were African
C. Georgia was founded in 1732 as a buffer between the rice- producing Carolinas and the Spanish settlements in FL
General James Oglethorpe, a social reformer in England, hoped to resettle England’s poor, especially those in debtor’s prison, in the New World
He thought that the hard work of founding the colony of Georgia would reform them
This suited the English Crown, who wanted many colonies in the New World
Both to produce riches and protect each other from other from other empires who might take them over