Bird-Monitoring Plan for the Upper Cumberland Region


One of the purposes of bird counts and the data they generate is to obtain a handle on the population status of as many species of birds as possible within a given area.  In the case of the Upper Cumberland Region (UCR), a sufficient number of bird counts and bird-data gathering activities exists for the data from those activities to point at the population status of some of the bird species residing therein.  Below is a preliminary (and perhaps overly conservative) assessment of the current bird monitoring efforts ongoing in the Region.

    Bird-monitoring in the Region is intended mainly as a local back-up to continental programs like the Christmas Bird Count and the Breeding Bird Survey.  These large-scale programs will probably identify changes in bird populations before they can be identified in the Region, and they will act as an important verifier of any changes in trends noticed within the Regional data that do happen to be detected prior to detection at the continental level.

    The table below lists all species occurring within the UCR.  Bold-faced species are those for which sufficient data exist to consider monitoring of their populations to be in effect in the Region, while light-faced species are those for which insufficient data exist to consider monitoring of their populations to be in effect.

    For each (bold-faced) species for which monitoring is considered to be in effect, the degree of monitoring capability currently available is estimated from High to Low; sometimes uncertainty in this matter has led to an assessment that lies between two of the three possible values (i. e., for Bufflehead the degree of monitoring capability is listed as L/M, that is somewhere between Low and Medium is the best estimate that can be offered). Note: an important factorhow dectectible a species isthat plays a role in determining the degree of monitoring capability that is available for each species is currently subsumed within the overall set of criteria that determine monitoring capability, but eventually a separate column will be added to the table below to indicate, or at least suggest, how detectible each species is.

    For each species, the seasons of the year when monitoring efforts are in effect are listed. Usually these efforts coincide with the period when the species is present within the Region.

    For each species, the monitoring programs being employed to monitor its population are listed. These monitoring programs follow:

    For each species, its current Regional status in terms of population trend is estimated, and it is placed in one or a combination of the following categories:


Table 1. Assessment of the current monitoring status for birds occurring within the Upper Cumberland Region.

Regional Species (bold-facing = sufficient data exist to  Degree of Seasons  Monitoring Current
consider monitoring to be in effect to some degree) Monitoring When Program(s) Status
Capability Monitored Employed in UCR
(High, Medium, Low) (SP, SU, FA, WI) (SBC, BBS, Foray, FBC, CBC, Other) (IT, ST,  DT, UT)
Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons)
Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens)
Ross's Goose (Chen rossii)
Brant (Branta bernicla)
Cackling Goose (Branta hutchinsii)
Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) H All All ST/IT?
Mute Swan (Cygnus olor)
Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)
Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus)
Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) L All All UT/ST?
Gadwall (Anas strepera) L FA, WI, SP FBC, CBC UT
American Wigeon (Anas americana)
American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) L FA, WI, SP FBC, CBC UT
Mallard (Anas platyrhyncos) M All All ST?/IT?
Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) L FA, SP SBC, FBC UT/ST?
Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata)
Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)
Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca)
Canvasback (Aythya valisineria)
Redhead (Aythya americana)
Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) M WI CBC ST?
Greater Scaup (Aythya marila)
Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis)
Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata)
White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca)
Black Scoter (Melanitta americana)
Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis
Bufflehead  (Bucephala albeola) L/M WI CBC ST?
Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula)
Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) M WI CBC ST?
Common Merganser (Mergus merganser)
Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator)
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)
Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) M All All DT
Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus)
Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallapavo) M All All IT?
Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)
Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica)
Common Loon (Gavia immer) L FA, WI, SP CBC, FBC, SBC UT
Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsii)
Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) L All All ST?
Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus) M WI CBC, Other ST
Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena)
Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis)
Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis)
Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) M SP, FA SBC, FBC IT?
Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga)        
American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)
Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)
Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) H All All ST/IT?
Great Egret (Ardea alba)
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)
Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)
Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor)
Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)
Green Heron (Butorides virescens) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC UT/ST?
White Ibis (Eudocimus albus)
Ibis sp. (Plegadis sp.)
Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) H All All ST/IT?
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) H All All ST/IT?
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) L SP, SU, FA SBC, Foray, FBC, Other IT?
Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus)        
Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis)
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) L All All ST?/IT?
Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) L WI CBC UT
Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus) L All All UT
Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperi) L All All ST/IT?
Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) M All All ST?
Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)        
Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) H All All ST
Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus)
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)
Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis)
King Rail (Rallus elegans)
Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola)
Sora (Porzana carolina)
Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinicus)
Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata)
American Coot (Fulica americana) L WI CBC UT
Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) M/H WI CBC, Other IT
Whooping Crane (Grus americana) L WI Other UT/IT?
Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatorola)
American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica)
Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus)
Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) M/H All All ST?
Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus)
American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana)
Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius)
Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria)
Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca)
Willet (Tringa semipalmata)
Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes)
Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda)
Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)
Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus)
Sanderling (Calidris alba)
Dunlin (Calidris alpina)
Baird's Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii)
Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla)
White-rumped Sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis)
Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Calidris subruficollis)
Pectoral Sandpiper (Calidris melanotos)
Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla)
Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri)
Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus)
Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus)
Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago delicata) L WI CBC UT
American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) L/M All All ST?
Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor)
Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus)        
Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius)
Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus)        
Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus)        
Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)
Sabine's Gull (Xema sabini)        
Bonaparte's Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia) L WI CBC UT/ST?
Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla)
Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan)
Mew Gull (Larus canus)
Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) M WI CBC ST?/IT?
California Gull (Larus californicus)
Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)
Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)
Sooty Tern (Onychoprion fuscatus)
Least Tern (Sternula antillarum)
Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia)
Black Tern (Chlidonias niger)
Common Tern (Sterna hirundo)
Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri)
Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) H All All ST?
Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) L All All IT?
Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) H All All ST/IT?
Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratoriusextinct)
Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC UT
Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)
Barn Owl (Tyto alba) * L All All UT
Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio) L All All ST?
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) L All All ST?
Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca)
Barred Owl (Strix varia) L All All ST?
Long-eared Owl (Asio otus)
Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)
Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus)
Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) L/M SP, SU SBC, Foray DT?
Chuck-will's-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray DT?
Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray, Other DT?
Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC DT?
Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)
Allen's Hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin)
Calliope Hummingbird (Selasphorus calliope)
Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) L All All ST?
Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) L/M All All UT
Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) H All All ST/IT?
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius) M WI CBC UT/ST?
Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) H All All ST?
Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) M All All


Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealisextirpated)
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) M/H All All UT/ST?
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) M/H All All ST?
American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) H All All DT?
Merlin (Falco columbarius)
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)
Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus)
Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensisextinct)
Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)
Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens) M/H SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris)
Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) M/H SP, SU, FA? All but CBC ST?
Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum)
Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)
Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)
Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) M/H All All ST?
Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) L/M SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray ST?
Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis)
Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) M/H SP, SU, FA? All but CBC ST?
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus) L SP, SU, FA Other IT?
Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) L/M All All, Other DT
Northern Shrike (Lanius excubitor)        
White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) M/H SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST/IT?
Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii)        
Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius) L All All IT?/ST?
Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray ST?
Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philadelphicus)
Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) H SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?/DT?
Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) H All All ST
American Crow (Corvus brachyrhyncos) H All All ST
Common Raven (Corvus corax)
Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) L All All UT
Purple Martin (Progne subis) L/M SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray ST?
Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC IT?
Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia)
Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST/IT?
Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) H SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) H All All ST
Tufted Titmouse (Baeopholus bicolor) H All All ST
Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis) L WI CBC UT
White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) M/H All All ST/IT?
Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) L All All ST?/IT?
Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) L WI CBC UT
House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) M All All IT
Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis) L WI CBC ST?/UT
Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis)
Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris)
Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus) H All All ST?
Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii)
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa) L/M WI CBC UT/ST?
Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) L WI CBC UT
Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) H All All ST
Veery (Catharus fuscescens) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Other UT
Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus) L SP, FA SBC, FBC UT/DT?
Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus) L/M SP, FA SBC, FBC ST?
Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus) L/M WI CBC ST?
Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) M/H SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
American Robin (Turdus migratorius) H All All ST/IT?
Gray Catbird (Dumatella carolinensis) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?/DT?
Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) L/M All All ST?
Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) H All All ST
European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) H All All ST/IT?
American Pipit (Anthus rubescens) L WI CBC UT
Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum) M All All UT
Ovenbird (Seiuris aurocapillus) M/H SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC UT
Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray ST?
Northern Waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis) L SP, FA SBC, FBC UT
Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera)
Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) L/M SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray ST?
Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray UT
Swainson's Warbler * (Limnothylpis swainsonii) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray UT/DT?
Tennessee Warbler (Oreothlypis peregrina) M SP, FA SBC, FBC DT?
Orange-crowned Warbler (Oreothlypis celata)
Nashville Warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla)
Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis)
Mourning Warbler (Oporornis philadelphia)
Kentucky Warbler (Oporornis formosus) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis tricas) H SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST
Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC UT/ST?
Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina)
Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica caerulea) L/M SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray DT
Northern Parula (Parula americana) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST
Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) M SP, FA SBC, FBC ST?
Bay-breasted Warbler (Dendroica castanea) L SP, FA SBC, FBC UT/DT?
Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC UT
Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray UT
Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) L SP SBC UT/DT?
Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Palm Warbler (Dendroica palmarum) L SP, FA, WI SBC, FBC, CBC UT
Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus) L All All UT/ST?
Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata) H WI CBC ST?
Yellow-throated Warbler (Dendroica dominica) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST/IT?
Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC UT
Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla)
Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) M/H SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray ST?
Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) M/H All All ST?
Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis)
American Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea)
Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina) H/M All All ST?
Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida)
Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla) H All All ST
Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)
Lark Sparrow (Chondestes grammacus
Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) L WI CBC UT
Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray UT/ST?
Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) L SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray ?
Le Conte's Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii)
Nelson's Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni)
Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca) L WI CBC UT
Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodius) H All All ST
Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii)
Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) M WI CBC ST?
White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) H WI CBC ST
Harris's Sparrow (Zonotrichia querula)
White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) M WI CBC ST?
Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis) M/H WI CBC ST?
Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)
Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis)
Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) H All All ST
Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) L/M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?
Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea) M SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST?/IT?
Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) H SP, SU, FA All but CBC ST
Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris)
Dickcissel (Spiza americana) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC UT/ST?
Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) L SP, FA SBC, FBC UT
Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) H All All ST?
Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) M/H All All DT?
Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
Yellow-headed Blackbird  (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus)
Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) L WI CBC, Other DT
Brewer's Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus) L WI CBC UT
Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) H All All ST?
Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) M/H All All ST?/IT?
Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius) M SP, SU SBC, BBS, Foray ST?
Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula) L SP, SU, FA All but CBC UT
House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) M/H All All ST?
Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus) L/M WI CBC UT/DT?
Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra)
White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera)
Common Redpoll (Acanthis flammea)
Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus) L/M WI CBC UT
American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis) H All All ST/IT?
Evening Grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus)
House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) M/H All All ST?/DT?

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